Oregon Chapter of the
Lewis and Clark Trail Heritage Foundation
June 2001 Newsletter : Vol. III, No. II
Oregon Chapter Newsletter
Vol. III, No. II     June 2001
The year is flying by and summer is nearly upon us. Having attended the National Council of the Lewis and Clark Bicentennial's workshop in April in Omaha, NE, I can tell you that momentum is really building up for the upcoming bicentennial commemoration. This year's workshop was the largest yet, and everyone was very fired up. Some of the planned events and projects here in Oregon will include: new exhibits at the Columbia River Maritime Museum; new exhibits in the Oregon Capitol lobby; an exhibit on the science of the Lewis and Clark expedition at OMSI; special exhibits at the Oregon Zoo on the flora and fauna encountered by the Corps; the National Lewis & Clark Bicentennial Exhibition to be shown at the Oregon History Center from November 2005 through March 2006; improved facilities, trails and interpretation at Ecola, Fort Stevens, Lewis & Clark, and Hat Rock State Parks and Corps of Discovery II, a national traveling classroom program that will visit Lewis and Clark campsite areas as well as partake in the National Signature Event, "Destination 2005 - The Pacific" - Lower Columbia, Oregon and Washington. We have much to look forward to and there are numerous opportunities for interested persons to get involved in these and other activities.
Joyce Badgely-Hunsaker's book has finally arrived on store shelves. If you haven't yet seen it, "Sacagawea Speaks" is a beautiful publication and one I am sure that Oregon Chapter members will want to add to their collection. Joyce is actively promoting her new book so be sure to watch your local newspapers for announcements of her appearances, presentations and book-signings. For information on this book and others, see the New In Print section on page 10.
Some upcoming local events of interest include "Seaman's Day" on July 4, 2001 at Fort Clatsop National Memorial, presented by Sweetbay Newfoundland Kennel. Call (503) 861-2471 for further information.
(continued on next page)
Inside This Issue:
Q&A - Latitude and Longitude Page 3 October 13th Meeting Information Page 4 Artist's Forum Report Page 5 Book Review: She Who Watches Page 6 Order Your Chapter Badge Page 7 Lemhi Pass / Crimson Bluffs news Page 8 Lewis' Letter of Credit Page 9 New In Print Page 10 Pomp's Packsack Page 11 Classroom Connections Page 12
Also, on July 13 - 15, 2001, and August 17 - 19, 2001, "... and Commence makeing Salt ..." is presented in character by Fort Clatsop staff and associates. Continuous at Avenue U, Seaside, OR. FREE. Call (503) 861-2471 for further information.
Of course, August 5 - 8, 2001, is the National Foundation's 33rd Annual Meeting, to be held this year in Pierre, SD. On the agenda for that meeting are: Lewis and Clark's First Big Mistake by Ron Laycock; Prairie Flora and Fauna by Dave Ode; Culture of the Dakota, Lakota and Nakota by Shirley Sneve; Navigating the Missouri River by Leonard Andrea; Placenaming in the Dakotas by Tom Gasque; Cooking with Lewis and Clark by Mary Gunderson; local field trips; a Thomas Jefferson presentation by Clay Jenkinson and the keynote speech by James Ronda. All in all, a very full and exciting schedule!
Registrations are currently down from last year's record high attendance and there is still time to register by contacting:Lewis and Clark Annual Meeting
Pierre Convention & Tourism Bureau
PO Box 548
Pierre, SD 57501
Also, although accommodations at Ramkota Inn, the meeting headquarters, are fully booked, there are still plenty of rooms at hotels that are within easy walking distance. I hope to see a good turnout of Oregon Chapter members there!
- Jay Rasmussen
Cheesy Movie Quiz
What was the name of the cheesy 1955 movie about the Lewis and Clark Expedition?
[The Far Horizons]Who portrayed Meriwether Lewis?
[Fred MacMurray]Who portrayed William Clark?
[Charleton Heston]Who portrayed Sergeant Gass?
[William Demarest]Who portrayed Sacagawea?
[Donna Reed]What book was it "based" on?
["Sacajawea of the Shoshones" by Della Gould Emmons]It was re-released in which year and under what name?
[1961, "Untamed West"]
Welcome To Our New Members!
With these additions we now boast a membership of 138.
Clytis Belloit Laura Carlsmith Gentry & Virginia Cutsforth William Elliott Michael W. Foster Glenmore Farms, Inc. Marion Grassley Idaho Chapter Steve Mattssona Spencer Moore Fred Roy Neal III Gerald & Pam Stauber Donald L. Stettler Conrad Stieber John & Norma Stofiel Jeff Uecker Caren Willoughby
Lewis & Clark : Question & Answer
By Mike Carrick
Did Lewis and Clark take and record measurements for Latitude and Longitude?
The answer is a qualified "yes." They successfully recorded latitude, which is relatively easily done by "shooting" the noonday sun with a sextant.
Longitude measurement was a much more difficult problem. Even with a good chronometer (which they had, but were unable to keep regulated) and tables; a great amount of calculation was necessary. Lewis was instructed to record the celestial observations for longitude and preserve them for calculation by specialists in the War Office when he returned.
Ferdinand Rudolph Hassler, instructor of mathematics at West Point, was selected for the task, and he attempted to correct the longitudes by making additional calculations. After considerable trial and error, he reported that he could make nothing of the observations.
An interesting sidelight to the study of the instruments taken by Lewis is the following request on his original list: "Instrument for measuring made of tape with feet & inches marked on it, confined within a circular lethern (sic) box of sufficient thickness to admit the width of the tape which has one of its ends confined to an axis of metal passing through the center of the box, around which and within the box it is readily wound by means of a small crank on the other side of the box which forms a part of the axis, its tape when necessary is drawn out with the same facility & ease with which it is wound up."
Whew! Why didn't he just say "one tape measure"? Well, tape measures as we know them, were not commercially produced until the 1840s. The earliest known tape measure, according to Silvio A. Bedini, science historian at the Smithsonian, is one made in England in 1846.
We wonder if Lewis was describing something that he had seen, or was he asking for something to be made that he had designed?
October 13, 2001 Meeting Info
The Fall Council Meeting of the Oregon Chapter will take place in Irrigon, OR on Saturday, October 13, 2001, starting at 1:00 p.m. Members are urged to spend the night in the area and experience Heritage Trail Day on Sunday.
The Heritage Trial Day events start at 2:00 p.m. and last until about 5:00 p.m. Festivities include displays by Chief Jesse of the Cayuse tribe, the largest display yet by the local Mountain Men group, fiddle and guitar music, talks on the local history, relating to the Lewis and Clark era and, perhaps most important, homemade pies!
We will begin the meeting by addressing some Chapter business and then follow up with the program segment. The agenda for the business meeting and further details regarding the program will appear in a future newsletter, but one of the program items will be a talk by Don Eppenbach, the title of which, "The beautiful plains of the Columbia", is a phrase from the journals when the Corps began their trip east after having spent the winter at Ft. Clatsop.
Eastbound: From the Portland area, travel I-84 East to the intersection three miles east of Boardman. Taking the exit onto Hwy 730 continue northeast for 8 miles to Irrigon. Continue into Irrigon to the First Street intersection (about 1200 feet east of the city limit sign). At this intersection you will see the Bank of Eastern Oregon on the right and Paul's Restaurant across the road from the bank. Turn left (north) onto First Street. Turn left at the first intersection (about 200 feet) onto Columbia Lane (Southmain Street). Stokes Landing Senior Center is on the right about 600 feet from the intersection. The building has a fair sized parking lot in front of it. It is metal clad with a brick facade and has a yellow metal roof.
Westbound: From the area of Pendleton travel I-84 West to the Paterson Ferry Road exit. Take Paterson Ferry Road to its intersection with Hwy 730. Turn right on Hwy 730 for a distance of about 4 miles into Irrigon. Turn left at the First Street intersection, left again onto Southmain Avenue, and right into the parking lot of Stokes Landing Senior Center.
The following local accommodation information was extracted from the www.visitboardman.com website:
Dodge City Inn
40 rooms, Long Branch Saloon, tanning salon, HBO, swimming pool, gift shop
Phone: 541-481-2441 Full Service Restaurant: Phone: 541-481-310
Boardman Park and Recreation District
63 paved full-service sites on the Columbia River.
Phone: 541-481-7217 or 888-481-7217
50 rooms, swimming pool, gift shop, pets accepted
Phone: 541-481-2375 or 800-55-ECONO
Driftwood RV Park
Daily, weekly, or monthly rates, Full-service sites, Indoor heated pool and spa
Phone: 541-481-2262 or 800-684-5543
The Riverview Inn
20 rooms, quiet
The Oregon Chapter's April meeting was held on Saturday April 21, 2001, at the beautiful new Beaverton City Library. On hand were a number of Northwest authors and artists including: Kindra Ankney (songwriter; Audio CD, Songs of the Journey), Ron Craig (filmmaker; Documentary, Who Was York?), Albert Furtwangler (author; Book, Acts of Discovery), Mark Hamilton (poet, videographer; Video, Discovering Home), Martin Plamondon (author, cartographer; Book; Lewis and Clark Trail Maps), Sydney Stevens (author; Book, 'D' is for Discovery), Stuart & Kathy Watson (authors, Book; The Lewis & Clark Expedition: A Traveler's Companion for Oregon and Washington), and, Gail Wells & Dawn Anzinger (authors, Book; Lewis and Clark Meet Oregon's Forests). In addition, Chapter member Brad Yazzolino showed up with a number of copies of a wonderful new audio CD, entitled We Proceeded On that his brother, Terry and friend Dan Thomasma (son of Kenneth Thomasma - author of The Truth about Sacajawea) wrote, recorded and produced. Besides other Chapter members, numerous members of the public and other local artists were drawn to this event. Among the latter were Rose Highbear, who with a group called Wisdom of the Elders is creating an audio CD containing recorded Native American stories surrounding Lewis & Clark, and Willa Holmes, author of a book entitled She Who Watches which tells stories of Coyote and Tsagalalal, woman chief of the Wishram band of the Chinook, and the creation of the famous petroglyph at Horsethief Lake State Park in Washington State. See page 6 for a review of Willa's beautifully illustrated book.
Chapter Website www.lcarchive.org/or_lcthf.html
Book Review : She Who Watches
She Who Watches, by Willa Holmes
Illustrations by Anderson Benally
Binford & Mort Publishing, Portland, OR
1997; ISBN: 0-8323-0520-0
Author Willa Holmes and her artistic companion Anderson Benally have crafted a beautiful booklet for those interested in the Native American history of the Pacific Northwest. The easy-flowing read belies the scholarly research she performed in preparation of this booklet, but highlights the heartfelt dignity she holds for Native American oral traditions. These stories of the Wishram, a band of the Chinook peoples, were handed down by the "oldest of the old" and chronicled by photographer Edward Curtis and anthropologist Edward Sapir.
Holmes' story features Tsagaglalal (Say-ah-gahg'-lah-lah), a wise and kind woman chief in the Wishram village of Nixlu'idix (Nix-lu'-i -dix) near Celilo Falls on the north side of the Columbia River. One day a stranger arrived wrapped in a bearskin, with his face hidden in the shadows, but Tsagaglalal recognized him as Coyote, the "Transformer" and the one "who could bring change to the life of the People and who taught them new ways." Coyote is a trickster and is sometimes so crafty that he winds up tricking even himself.
Holmes lyrically weaves a number of Coyote related stories into this tale of how and why the ancient petroglyph of "She Who Watches" was created, including why salmon migrate and how Coyote allowed man to speak and eat.
Oregon Chapter members who attended our May 6, 2000, meeting will recall the warm, beautiful spring day when we met at Horsethief Lake State Park and were guided on a short hike to see this wondrous work of art that is constantly vigilant of all that occurs in the grand vista of her "view", which includes the Columbia River as it flows by below.
I very much enjoyed my reading and pondering of Willa Holmes' book, and especially enjoyed the wonderful illustrations by Anderson Benally that adorn and enhance the tales. It is recommended reading for the curious and those who have an interest in Native American tales and the oral history of the ancient peoples of the Pacific Northwest. At about 40 pages it is a quick read and perfect for those on busy schedules who can take a few moments to relax and escape to another time and way of life.
Chapter Badges Now Available For Ordering
For interested members, Chapter Badges are now available for ordering. As shown above, these badges are approximately 3 1/2 by 2 1/2 inches in size, made of green plastic in the shape of Oregon State and feature both the well-known pointing figures of Lewis and Clark and an image of the eulachon. They also display the name of the Chapter and allow room for the member's name to be engraved. They feature a magnetic back rather than a pinback, so they won't destroy your clothes. The price is $10.00 per badge.
Quantity How Name Should Appear On Badge Price ($10.00 each) Total:
Make checks payable to: ORLCTHF
Send form and/or order information along with check to:Jay RasmussenPlease allow 6 - 8 weeks for delivery.
1190 NE Birchaire Lane
Hillsboro, OR 97124-2635
Celebrate the coming Lewis & Clark Bicentennial as you join Tour Director Don Popejoy for this remarkable journey. Follow "In the Path of Lewis & Clark." Portland to Great Falls in 8 days and 7 nights. Departs July 30 and August 20. This is a classic tour aboard a restored streamliner on original 1880s rail routes. For details go to www.montanarailtours.com or contact Don at firstname.lastname@example.org or 509-483-3174. A 20% discount will be given to OCTA & LCTHF members by contacting Don first.
All Aboard the Montana Rockies Rail Tours
Changes In Store For Lemhi Pass
Jeffery G. Olson, Trail Coordinator for the Lewis and Clark Trail Heritage Foundation reports that changes are in store for the Lemhi Pass area of the Lewis and Clark Trail. On the Montana side of the pass, the U.S. Forest Service will ban camping at Sacajawea Memorial Park starting next year and lasting through the bicentennial years and perhaps beyond. Sacajawea Memorial Park will be updated and upgraded. The road will be smoothed out and lengthened a few hundred yards, likely running over the top of the present toilet site and requiring that the existing picnic tables be moved farther into the woods and away from the road. A new parking area and toilet facilities along with additional picnic tables are proposed for the end of the road, about fifty yards from the pass itself where there currently resides an old mine cut. Jeffery notes that "The nice thing about this location is that the parking lot, vehicles and toilet facilities can all be screened, naturally, from the pass itself." From this new parking area, visitors can walk back to the Most Distant Fountain Spring "site" where they can straddle the Missouri River.
A new addition to the facilities at Lemhi Pass will be the Westward View of the Columbia Waters area. Located about a quarter to one-half of a mile from the pass on the road that goes north of the pass on the Idaho side, a good-sized parking lot and trail to an interpretive area will be added. The interpretive area will discuss the view of the snow-capped mountains and Captain Lewis' realization that there would be no easy portage to the waters of the Columbia. From this area, one can also view an expedition campsite. The road can then be taken to the Flag Unfurling site and eventually to Tendoy.
-- compiled from an email from Jeffrey Olson (May 31, 2001).
Burns Voices Support for Crimson Bluffs Purchase
Historical Landmark of Lewis & Clark Journey Could Be Purchased By BLM
WASHINGTON, D.C. - Montana Senator Conrad Burns has announced his support for the acquisition of 50 acres along the Missouri River by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM). The two parcels of land, known as 'Crimson Bluffs', were specifically cited in the journals of Lewis and Clark and are now for sale.
In a recent letter to BLM State Director Mat Millenbach, Burns said, "The historic significance the Crimson Bluffs offer is immeasurable. As Captain Lewis was passing by in 1805, he mentioned the Bluffs in his journal. The Expedition even added the Crimson Bluffs to their permanent and historic maps. This unspoiled acreage will be a welcome site to the many visitors following the path of the Corps of Discovery."
The Bluffs are located in Broadwater County in the immediate vicinity of Townsend and the southern end of Canyon Ferry Lake. Purchase of the Bluffs will be done by redirecting funds originally allocated by the Senate Interior Appropriations Subcommittee, of which Burns is ranking member. They will then be managed by the BLM, and kept in their unspoiled original condition. Local residents and legislators also support this purchase.
-- from a Press Release issued by Senator Burns' office (June 6, 2001)
Lewis' Letter of Credit
As promised by Thomas Jefferson in his instructions to Meriwether Lewis (June 20, 1803), a letter of credit was to be issued to Lewis. Jefferson states in these instructions:"As you will be without money, clothes or provisions, you must endeavor to use the credit of the U.S. to obtain them, for which purpose open letters of credit shall be furnished you, authorising you to draw upon the Executive of the U.S. or any of it's officers, in any part of the world, on which draughts can be disposed of, & to apply with our recommendations to the Consuls, agents, merchants, or citizens of any nation with which we have intercourse, assuring them, in our name, that any aids they may furnish you, shall be honorably repaid, and on demand."1An early draft copy of the letter of credit is in the Jefferson Papers at the Library of Congress. A copy by Jefferson, dated July 4, 1803, is in the possession of the Missouri Historical Society.
The text of that letter reads:
"Dear Sir Washington. U.S. of America. July 4, 1803
In the Journey which you are about to undertake for the discovery of the course and source of the Missouri, and of the most convenient water communication from thence to the Pacific ocean, your party being small, it is expected that you will encounter considerable dangers from the Indian inhabitants. Should you escape those dangers and reach the Pacific ocean, you may find it imprudent to hazard a return the same way, and be forced to seek a passage round by sea, in such vessels as you may find on the Western coast. But you will be without money, without clothes, & other necessaries; as a sufficient supply cannot be carried with you from hence. Your resource in that case can only be in the credit of the U.S. for which purpose I hereby authorise you to draw on the Secretaries of State, of the Treasury, of the War & of the Navy of the U.S. according as you may find your draughts will be most negociable, for the purpose of obtaining money or necessaries for yourself & your men: and I solemnly pledge the faith of
1 Jackson, Donald, ed.; "The Letters of the Lewis and Clark Expedition"; University of Illinois Press, Urbana, IL; 1978 (2nd Edition); Vol. 1, pp 61-66
the United States that these draughts shall be paid punctually at the date they are made payable. I also ask of the Consuls, agents, merchants & citizens of any nation with which we have intercourse or amity to furnish you with those supplies which your necessities may call for, assuring them of honorable and prompt retribution. And our own Consuls in foreign parts where you may happen to be, are hereby instructed & required to be aiding & assisting to you in whatsoever may be necessary for procuring your return back to the United States. And to give more entire satisfaction & confidence to those who may be disposed to aid you, I Thomas Jefferson, President of the United States of America, have written this letter of general credit for you with my own hand, and signed it with my name.
2 ibid; pp 105-106
Jefferson's West by James P. Ronda
Thomas Jefferson Foundation, Monticello; 2001; 80 pages. Price: $8.95
Across the Snowy Ranges by James R. Fazio (Photos by Mike Venso, Maps by Steve Russell)
Woodland Press, Moscow. ID; 2001; 204 pages. Price $29.95
Historic Monuments: Fort Clatsop (Lewis & Clark) by Julia Hargrove, Gary Mohrman (Illustrator)
Sacagawea Speaks: Beyond the Shining Mountains with Lewis Clark by Joyce Badgley Hunsaker
Falcon Publishing; 2001; 170 pages. Price $27.50 [ISBN: 1585920797]
Corps of Discovery: A Novel Based on the Lewis and Clark Expedition of 1803-1806 by Jeffrey W. Tenney
In addition to the above, a number of reprints and paperbacks have or will be issued soon. These include: Sign-Talker : The Adventure of George Drouillard on the Lewis and Clark Expedition by James Alexander Thom due out in paperback in October 2001; a paperback version of the Saga of Lewis and Clark: Into the Unknown West by Thomas Schmidt; a reprint of The Lolo Trail : A History and a Guide to the Trail of Lewis and Clark by Ralph S. Space; and a reprint, in both paperback and hard cover of the Original Journals of the Lewis and Clark Expedition: 1804-1806, by Reuben Gold Thwaites, ed.
Upcoming releases announced include: Finding the West : Explorations With Lewis and Clark (Histories of the American Frontier) by James P. Ronda (Hardcover - October 2001) and Lewis and Clark : Doctors in the Wilderness by Bruce C. Paton (Paperback - October 2001).
Lewis and Clark
Plants that Lewis and Clark gathered on their journey still survive today; thanks to the careful ways they gathered and preserved their specimens.
Check out the informative stories in the May 24, 2001 Oregonian on the flora of the Expedition. The Home and Garden section (pp. 22-25) offers simple ideas for pressing plants: just place dry specimens on sheets of paper toweling between the pages of an old phone book and stack something heavy on top. You can also make more elaborate (but inexpensive) plant presses by using quarter-inch plywood and corrugated cardboard. The Oregonian article has more details and is currently available on-line at: www.oregonlive.com/hg/lewisclark/index.ssf?/hg/oregonian/01/05/24_lcmain.frame . For information on collecting plants in national forests check: www.fs.fed.us/r6 .
To Cheryl Essary, Doc Wessilius, Barb Kubik and Jerry Igo for a wonderful joint chapter meeting in Kennewick, WA, on May 19, 2001.
To all the artists who donated their time for the April Lewis & Clark Artist's Forum.
To Paul Nolte for all his help in ensuring that the Oregon Chapter is a proper legal entity.
To board member Don Eppenbach for all his work in setting up the upcoming October 13, 2001 meeting in Irrigon, OR.
The keelboat at Onawa, IA.
Editor's Note: Each issue will feature an Oregon teacher who has found ways to bring the Lewis and Clark story alive while also meeting rigorous academic standards.
Featured Teacher: Judith Lampi, Tubman Middle School, Portland
Portland Eighth Graders Become High-Tech Ethnobotanists
Students in Judi Lampi's Ethnobotany Class at Tubman Middle School share her enthusiasm for Lewis and Clark by using today's technological tools to document 200 years of change. Using The Essential Lewis and Clark, and one classroom set of the full University of Nebraska journals; Judi challenges students to think like scientists as well as the indigenous users of the plants Lewis and Clark encountered. Judi takes her students on occasional field trips to significant historic and natural history sites in the region (e.g the petroglyphs near Horse Thief Falls State Park in Washington state). Students learn how tribes used plants and animals as part of their spiritual life and culture (Indian adolescents still come to this area on vision quests). In another field-based activity at a tree farm/research center near Portland, students gather data on forests then and now, and prepare computer models and simulations on scenarios for the future. Each year the culminating activity for Ms. Lampi's class is a three-day canoe trip, usually along the lower Columbia estuary where the Expedition actually traveled. After canoe training and with one-on-one adult helpers, the students plan their meals and prepare their journals to record the plants and geographic features as these look today. One of the biggest challenges is planning their crossing of the Columbia to avoid freighter traffic. The Tubman students are assisted by grants from community partners, such as the Multnomah Athletic Club, for liability insurance, bus and canoe rental.
Judi and two other Tubman teachers are also part of the Lewis and Clark Re-Discovery Project funded by a U.S. Department of Education Technology Challenge Grant in the state of Idaho. This July, 45 teachers from 9 states participating in this project will spend a week in training at Tubman and a second workshop week in Astoria where three teachers there are also involved in the same project aimed at helping teachers use cutting-edge technologies. Last year Judi's students created a website showing plants Lewis and Clark found on the Lower Columbia.
Chapter Website www.lcarchive.org/or_lcthf.html
For information on joining the National Lewis & Clark Trail Heritage Foundation click here.
For information on joining the Oregon State Chapter click here.
Return to Oregon State Chapter Main Page
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Posted: June 26, 2001
Send Questions, Comments and Corrections to Jay Rasmussen