Oregon Chapter of the  
  Lewis and Clark Trail Heritage Foundation  

  January 2001 Newsletter : Vol. III, No. I  

Oregon Chapter Newsletter
Vol. III, No. I                                   January 2001

Oregon Chapter LCTHF

President's Corner

Dear Chapter Members - a big HELLO and THANK YOU from your new president. Thanks to our past president, Keith Hay, the Oregon Chapter has gotten off to an incredible start, having accomplished more in our first two years than more established chapters have even dreamed about. These accomplishments are due to our diverse membership and a number of very dedicated and talented people.

Your board members have been hard at work. We had a very useful meeting on January 13th and this newsletter provides details on many of the items that were discussed.

As the new chapter president, I have a couple of items on my personal agenda. The first is to, like our brother chapter to the north, schedule meetings further out in advance, so that we are not scrambling in a reactive and panic mode at the last minute and so that members can properly schedule meeting dates into their calendars. This is a lot of work at first to build up this "buffer" zone, but once established we can start thinking about next year's meetings at a slightly calmer pace. Also we can more easily add a meeting or field trip to take advantage of any special opportunities that might occur during the year. In this newsletter you will find information about SIX upcoming chapter meetings and events, so get out your calendars and mark them down!

The second item on my agenda has to do with maintaining and increasing our chapter membership. We had a very healthy chapter ramp up, but, as awareness of the upcoming bicentennial gets out, and as other chapters and the National Foundation are growing by leaps and bounds, the Oregon Chapter membership has decreased over the past year. Without a vital and healthy membership we cannot hope

to accomplish our mission or complete chapter projects. We have taken our non-profit status perhaps too seriously, as postage and printing, as well as project costs, have left our bank account precariously low, or even in the red if some outstanding reimbursable expenses were to be paid. This is one reason that membership renewals are of vital importance and why the chapter, thanks to help from board member Linda Nelson, has mailed out renewal requests separately so that they receive the attention they deserve. Please take the time to renew your membership! Also, we are seeking new ways to get the word out about the Oregon Chapter. Since January, we have distributed about 1,500 copies of our chapter membership form through various mechanisms and organizations. One way that chapter members can help is to take 15 or 20 forms to their local library. Libraries generally have an area available to display and distribute community literature. We have also requested an updated address list from the National Foundation and will extend invitations to any National Foundation members who reside in Oregon and who are not yet Oregon Chapter members. I hope these efforts will get us back on track. If you have any ideas to help out, be sure to let your ideas be known! - Jay Rasmussen

Inside This Issue:
Upcoming Chapter Meetings Summary     Page 2
Q&A - Did L&C carry a Dictionary?     Page 3
March 17th Meeting Information         Page 4
April 21st Meeting Information         Page 5
May 19th Meeting Information           Page 7
Pomp's Packsack                              Page 8
Classroom Connections                       Page 12

  Upcoming Chapter Meetings  

Please mark your calendars for the following SIX upcoming chapter meetings.

Saturday, March 17, 2001
11:00 a.m.
Miller Center, Room 105
Lewis and Clark College
0615 SW Palatine Hill Road
Portland, OR  97219

See map and further information on page 4.
11:00 a.m.

11:45 a.m.

12:30 p.m.
Business meeting, including vote on bylaw changes - see page 4 for further details.

Coffee and cookie break.

"Literature of the Lewis and Clark Expedition": Join Dr. Doug Erickson, curator of the large Lewis and Clark rare book collection at Lewis and Clark College and Roger Wendlick, assistant curator, as they share the fascinating story of books about the Expedition.
Saturday, April 21, 2001
12:00 p.m.
Beaverton City Library
12375 SW Fifth Street
Beaverton, OR  97005
(503) 644-2197

See map and further information on page 5.
12:00 p.m.

1:00 p.m.
3:00 p.m.
Short business meeting.

Artist's Forum: Come meet face-to-face with local Lewis & Clark authors, illustrators, filmmakers and songwriters.

See page 5 for the list of attending artists.
Saturday, May 19, 2001
10:00 a.m.
East Benton County Historical Society Museum and Two Rivers Park
Kennewick, WA

See maps and further information on page 7.
10:00 a.m.

11:00 a.m.
A joint meeting with the Washington and Idaho State Chapters. We will have a joint welcome session, followed by speaker Jerry Igo, who will teach us all about the "Pacific Northwest Flowers and Plants of Lewis and Clark."

Grab or bring lunch on a field trip to Two Rivers Park, on the western shore of the Columbia where, after eating, Jerry Igo will lead us on a hike to view plants described by Lewis and Clark.
August 5 - 8, 2001
Best Western Ramkota Inn
Pierre, SD
An Oregon Chapter meeting will be held sometime during and in conjunction with the National Foundation's Annual meeting in Pierre, SD.
Saturday, October 13, 2001
Senior Center
Irrigon, OR
An Oregon Chapter meeting will be followed by a field trip to local L&C sites. Members are invited to stay the night and join in the Heritage Trail Days celebrations to be held the following day. Further information including maps and accommodation contacts will be forthcoming in a future newsletter.
Saturday, December 8, 2001
Fort Clatsop National Memorial
Astoria, OR
The second annual Christmas party. Join us for food, fun and festivities at Fort Clatsop! Further information will be forthcoming in a future chapter newsletter.

!!! REMEMBER !!!

Up to date information is always available on the chapter website at

Welcome To Our New Members!
With these additions we now boast a membership of 174 . . . and growing!

Richard Anderson Wilbur L. Bluhm Gentry & Virginia Cutsforth
Cheryl Essary Don & Laurel Fechner Larry V. Gray
Jerry Igo John A. Kirkland Irene Lilja
Howard Mader Jan Mitchell & Roger Rocka Berk Moss
Tom Morrison    

Lewis & Clark : Question & Answer
By Mike Carrick

Question I have just read The Character of Meriwether Lewis by Clay Jenkinson, and the author mentions (page xii) that L&C did not have a dictionary along with them. I think that I remember reading somewhere that they did have a dictionary. Can you find a reference to them carrying a dictionary?

Answer Well, L&C did have a "dictionary" with them, but it was probably what we today would call an encyclopedia. After returning from the voyage, Clark made a list of items that he was forwarding to Louisville, and on the list is ". . . the 4 vols of the Deckinsery of arts an ciences." Apparently Clark did not use this dictionary as a spell checker.

Donald Jackson thinks that Clark might be referring to a revised edition of Ephraim Chambers' Cyclopedia: or, An Universal Dictionary of Arts and Science. . . . with the supplement and modern improvements incorporated in one alphabet by Abraham Rees, (London, 1778-86). When Rees revised the original two-volume (1728) Chambers' Dictionary, it was available in four volumes with plates included or five volumes with the plates bound separately.

This four-volume set was large and heavy, so Jackson suggests that they might have carried a smaller, lighter four-volume set with the prolix title, A New and complete Dictionary of Arts and Science; comprehending all the branches of useful knowledge, with accurate descriptions as well of illustrating them, as of the classes, kinds, preparations, and uses of natural productions, whether animals, vegetables, minerals, fossils, or fluids by a Society of Gentlemen (London, 1753; 2nd ed., 1764).

This octavo set was commonly called Owen's Dictionary after the publisher.

There are persuasive similarities between Lewis's phraseology in describing Salmon and Ibex and the text in Owen's Dictionary. This Dictionary was also very strong in the field of medicine. Clark diagnosed Floyd's ailment as "Biliose Chorlick." The symptoms Floyd had are described on page 660 of the Dictionary and are called "Bilious colic."

Thank you to Doug Erickson, College Archivist, Lewis & Clark College for help with this answer.

  March 17, 2001 Meeting Information  

On Saturday March 17, 2001, at 11:00 a.m. in Room 105 of the Miller Center for the Humanities building on the campus of Lewis and Clark College in Portland, we will hold our Winter Council Meeting. To get to Lewis and Clark College from I-5 northbound or southbound, take the Terwilliger Boulevard exit. Turn right (south) and follow the signs. See the map below for the location of Miller Center. Enter at Gate 1. Park in the rear lot.

On the agenda is a short business meeting that includes voting on a proposed change to the Chapter Bylaws. At the general meeting in Champoeg on October 15, 2000, a discussion regarding removal of term limits for the offices of Secretary and Treasurer was noted for future action by the board. The board met on January 13, 2001 and recommends the following bylaw change for approval by the membership. The current text of the affected passage is:

Article III, Section 1 . . . No officer or director may be elected for more than two consecutive terms.

The proposed replacement text is as follows:

Article III, Section 1 . . . No President, Vice-President or Director may be elected for more than two consecutive terms. There are no term limits for the offices of Secretary or Treasurer.

After the business meeting we will have a break with coffee and tea provided. If possible, please bring a snack to share. Following the break, the program portion of the meeting will commence. Dr. Doug Erickson & Roger Wendlick of Lewis & Clark College will present a fascinating program entitled "Literature of the Lewis & Clark Expedition."

Lewis and Clark College Campus Map
Map of Lewis and Clark College campus, with Miller Center for the Humanities (Bldg. 25) marked with an arrow.

  April 21, 2001 Meeting Information  

April 21, 2001 Meeting Poster Come meet local Lewis and Clark authors, illustrators, filmmakers and songwriters and talk with them about their works. This event is being held at the beautiful new:
Beaverton City Library
12375 SW Fifth Street
Beaverton, OR  97005
A map and driving instructions to the library are shown on the next page. This event will be advertised to the public and the artists will have copies of their works available for sale and signing. The artists in attendance include:

Kindra Ankney, Songwriter, Illustrator;
Audio CD: Songs of the Journey

Ron Craig, Filmmaker, Author;
Documentary, Book: Who Was York?

Pat Fagerland, Illustrator;
Book: "D" is for Discovery

Albert Furtwangler, Author;
Book: Acts of Discovery

Martin Plamondon, Author, Cartographer;
Book: Lewis and Clark Trail Maps: A Cartographic Reconstruction

Sydney Stevens, Author;
Book: "D" is for Discovery

Stuart & Kathy Watson, Authors;
Book: The Lewis & Clark Expedition: A Traveler's Companion for Oregon and Washington

A short chapter business meeting will be held starting at 12:00 noon. The Artist's Forum event will be held from 1:00 p.m. until 3:00 p.m.

  Join the Jargonauts  

A new group calling themselves the Jargonauts meets the first Sunday of each month at 1:00 p.m. at the Museum of the Oregon Territory. Also known as the Clackamas County Historical Museum, it is located at 211 Tumwater Road in Oregon City, OR. The group welcomes anyone interested in learning about Chinook jargon. For further information you can contact, via email, either John Schilke (doc@clacknet.com) or Cathie Mortensen (dr_c_m@yahoo.com) or call the museum at (503) 655-5574.

April 21, 2001 Meeting Map
April 21, 2001 Meeting Map
Map showing location of the Beaverton City Library.

Driving Instructions:
From Hwy-217, take the Beaverton - Hillsdale Hwy. (Hwy 10) exit. If coming from the North, turn right (West). If coming from the South, turn left (West). Travel west on Beaverton-Hillsdale Hwy. past Hall Blvd. and turn South onto SW Watson Ave. Continue South to Fifth Street and turn left (East). Continue East on Fifth Street. Crossing Hall Blvd. you will see the Beaverton City LIbrary on your left. Go east past the Library and past the first driveway, which is the exit. Proceed to the second driveway and turn left into the parking lot.

  Oregon State Capitol Foundation Events  

The theme of the Oregon State Capitol Foundation's kick-off event is "Lewis & Clark - A New Beginning." Numerous events are scheduled throughout the day of April 25, 2001. Among the highlights are Clay Jenkinson's portrayal of Meriwether Lewis at 10:00 a.m. and Joyce Badgley-Hunsaker's portrayal of Sacagawea at 1:00 p.m. A Cotillion (Historical Costume Ball) will be held starting at 6:00 p.m. Tickets for the Cotillion cost $60.00 and proceeds go to benefit the Oregon State Capitol Foundation. For further information contact Debbie Miller at (503) 986-1654 or OSCF@leg.state.or.us.

  May 19, 2001 Meeting Information  

This will be a joint meeting with the Washington and Idaho Chapters. Oregonian Jerry Igo will present a talk at the East Benton County Historical Society Museum on the subject of "Pacific Northwest Flowers and Plants of Lewis and Clark." The meeting starts at 10:00 a.m. Following the meetings and program at the Museum, we will head over to Two Rivers Park to eat our lunches and take a hike with Mr. Igo to view some of the plants he discusses in his presentation.

Driving instructions to the East Benton County Historical Society Museum: From I-84 near Hermiston take I-82 north. Take the 395/14 exit into Kennewick. You will cross the Columbia River on the blue bridge. Follow 395/14 to its intersection with 10th Avenue. There is a Fred Meyer on one corner and a Jack-In-The-Box on another corner. Turn east onto 10th Avenue, away from Fred Meyer and towards the Jack-In-The-Box. Follow 10th Avenue to Auburn Street. Turn left (north) and then left again onto Keewaydin Drive. The East Benton County Historical Society Museum is situated by the park on the left.

Driving instructions from East Benton County Historical Society Museum to Two Rivers Park: There should be plenty of people to follow from the Museum to Two Rivers Park, but as you may want to stop at a grocery store or fast-food outlet on your way to the park, you can use the following instructions. Head back down Keewaydin Drive, towards the way you came in. Make the right (south) onto Auburn Street and go back to the intersection with 10th Avenue. Now make a left (east) onto 10th Avenue. Follow it to the junction with Chemical Drive (also marked as Hwy. 397). You will pass Sundowns Racetrack and the County Fairgrounds. At Hwy. 397 turn right. Follow it to Finley Road and turn left onto Finley Road which then continues east. Follow Finley Road until you see the sign on the left for Two Rivers Park. Make a hard left and enter the park.

May 19, 2001 Meeting Map
May 19, 2001 Meeting Map
Map of Kennewick area showing the Museum and the Park.

Pomp's Packsack
Kids can connect to the Lewis and Clark story by making today's version of trail mix based on foods the Expedition might have carried. Before your next road trip, visit the bulk foods section of the supermarket and buy cornnuts, sunflower seeds, dried cranberries and unseasoned jerky and, thanks to modern technology, you're close to the real thing 200 years later. Help the kids make a simple drawstring bag of leather or fabric, attach some beads for decoration and draw the "branding iron" design and they're ready to hit the trail!

  Chapter Badge Design  

Chapter member Anita Walker submitted the winning design in the Chapter Logo contest. Actually she submitted the ONLY design, shame on the rest of us! Anita's design incorporates a unique Pacific Northwest symbol, which is recognizable by Lewis and Clark aficionados. She proposed using the journal drawing of the eulachon, or candlefish. This emblem is now being incorporated into a Chapter Badge. The prototype badge design, shown below, utilizes a forest green plastic pinback in the shape of the state of Oregon. It also includes the eulachon logo and the famous "pointing figures" for easy recognition by others. The member's name will be inscribed in a large, easily readable font, and sits above the name of the chapter. Pricing and ordering information for these badges will be announced at a future meeting, in a future newsletter and, of course, on the Chapter website at www.lcarchive.org\or_lcthf.html.
Oregon Chapter Badge

Oregon Chapter Christmas Party 2000

New In Print

Moulton, Vol. 13 The Journals of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, Volume 13 : Comprehensive Index
by Gary E. Moulton
Vol. 13
Univ of Nebraska Pr
ISBN: 0803229429
Due out June 2001
Call Univ of Nebraska Pr @ (800) 755-1105
Betts, In Search of York In Search of York : The Slave Who Went to the Pacific With Lewis and Clark
by Robert B. Betts
206 pages
Revised edition
February 2001
Univ Pr of Colorado
ISBN: 0870816187
Long, Backtracking Backtracking : By Foot, Canoe, and Subaru Along the Lewis and Clark Trail
by Benjamin Long
256 pages
September 2000
Sasquatch Books
ISBN: 1570612463
No Cover Available Quilting Lewis & Clark : The Upper Missouri
by Patricia B. Hastings
September 2000
Stoneydale Pr Pub Co
ISBN: 0912299983
Sullivan, Lewis and Clark (In Their Own Words) Lewis and Clark (In Their Own Words)
by George Sullivan
128 pages
September 2000
Scholastic Reference
ISBN: 0439147492
Thomas, Lewis and Clark Trail Lewis and Clark Trail The Photo Journal: Up the Missouri, Down the Columbia and Back
by George Thomas
122 pages
November 2000
ISBN: 097059920X
Bowen, Cruzate and Maria Cruzatte and Maria : A Gabriel Du Pre Mystery
by Peter Bowen
256 pages
March 2001
Minotaur Books
ISBN: 0312262531
Quiri, Lewis and Clark Expedition The Lewis and Clark Expedition (We the People)
by Patricia Ryon Quiri
48 pages
October 2000
Compass Point Books
ISBN: 0756500443

  On the Origin of the Phrase "Corps of Discovery"  

By Jay Rasmussen

Ferreting out the answer to the seemingly simple question of how the phrase "Corps of Discovery" came to be attached to the Lewis and Clark Expedition has become an, as yet, unending journey. This investigation has involved input from numerous experts such as our own Mike Carrick and Dr. Albert Furtwangler, as well as Dr. Joseph Mussulman and Dr. Gary Moulton. My thanks to each of these people for their informative donations in support of this quest.

Using primary documentation sources, the earliest evidence in the evolution and use of this term of which I am aware would support Meriwether Lewis as originator of the phrase. On August 26, 1804, after the death of Sergeant Charles Floyd, Lewis writes in his Orderly Book, "The commanding officers have thought it proper to appoint Patric Gass, a Sergeant in the corps of volunteers for North Western Discovery, he is therefore to be obeyed and respected accordingly."1

The next reference is dated August 31, 1804 and is one of six surviving printed forms that declare friendship between the United States and (your name here). In this case, the recipient was "War char pa the sticker a Warrier"2 of the "Soues" Nation. There is a photographic copy of this document opposite of page 83 in John Bakeless' "Lewis and Clark: Partners in Discovery".

The third reference I find is again from the Orderly Book. It is written by Clark, but signed by Lewis, and is dated October 8, 1804. It reads:
"Robert Frazer being regularly inlisted and haveing become on of the Corps of Vollenteers for North Western Discovery, he is therefore to be viewed & respected accordingly; and will be anexed to Sergeant Gass's mess.
                                        Wm Clark Cpt &
                                        Meriwether Lewis
River Marapa                   Capt. 1st U'S. Regt. Infty

The earliest mention of which I am aware of the shorter phrase "Corps of Discovery" was in David McKeehan's Prospectus for Patrick Gass' book, written on March 23, 1807 and published on March 24, 1807 in the Pittsburgh "Gazette".4

However, some very respectful historians have published information to the contrary, attributing the phrase to Thomas Jefferson. In a speech entitled "The Core of Discovery", which Dr. James Ronda delivered at the 1998 Foundation meeting, and which was published in the February 1999 issue of WPO, he states:
"But sometimes the president called this infantry company on the move "The Corps of Discovery." In recent years that phrase -- "The Corps of Discovery" --

1Moulton, Gary E., ed. "The Journals of the Lewis and Clark Expedition"; University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, NE, 19xx (Vol. 3, pg. 14)
2Jackson, Donald, ed. "Letters of the Lewis and Clark Expedition"; University of Illinois Press, Urbana, IL, 1978, 2nd Edition (Vol. 1, pg. 210).
3Moulton, "Journals"; (Vol. 3, pp. 152-3).
4Jackson, "Letters"; Vol. 2 pp 390-1

has become increasingly popular. Like so many of Jefferson's lines, it has a nice ring to it.

Also, on the "Discovering Lewis & Clark" web site (www.lewis-clark.org), in the "Introduction" by Dr. Harry Fritz, he states:
"The Corps of Discovery, as Jefferson called the enterprise, or the "corps of volunteers for North Western Discovery," as Meriwether Lewis put it, epitomized the rising glory of the United States -- its sense of limitless possibilities and unparalleled opportunities."

I continue to search for a definitive answer, and am especially interested in locating primary evidence that might support Thomas Jefferson as the originator of this phrase. I welcome any input from the reader and encourage them to contact me at:
Jay Rasmussen
1190 NE Birchaire Lane, Hillsboro, OR 97124-2635
(503) 640-9493

Classroom Connections

Editor's Note: Each issue will feature an Oregon teacher who has found ways to bring the Lewis and Clark story alive while also meeting rigorous academic standards.

Walk into Marilyn Jackson's third or fourth grade classroom at Edwards Elementary in Newberg and you may find yourself back on the Trail. Believing that hands-on learning is key to mastering critical reading, writing and math, Marilyn uses the Journals and stories of Lewis and Clark to push fourth-grade students to higher levels of learning but without sacrificing teamwork, cooperation or learning about people who are culturally different. At the end of the school year, students demonstrate what they've learned at a nearby community park through their own version of living history. In school year 1999-2000, Marilyn's fourth graders created a website featuring the Chinooks and their contributions to the success of the Expedition. What the students created can be seen at www.nwrel.org/teachlewisandclark/free/newberg.html. Students located information about Chinook life, including the flora and fauna used by these Native Oregonians as well as Lewis and Clark. Pictures they used on the Web needed permission from the owners, so Marilyn required students to write the request letters to the Burke Museum and other copyright holders. School year 2000-2001 finds Marilyn adjusting to a third-grade curriculum, but her commitment to Lewis and Clark as a context for good teaching and learning will still be seen in student journals, natural science studies, and measuring campus trees with the same math techniques that Lewis and Clark used.

For information on joining the National Lewis & Clark Trail Heritage Foundation click here.

For information on joining the Oregon State Chapter click here.

Return to Oregon State Chapter Main Page

Return to L & C Archive List

Posted: March 16, 2001

Send Questions, Comments and Corrections to Jay Rasmussen