Oregon Chapter of the  
  Lewis and Clark Trail Heritage Foundation  

  September 2000 Newsletter : Vol. II, No. IV  





Oregon Chapter Newsletter
Vol. II, No. IV                                   September 2000

Oregon Chapter LCTHF

President's Corner


This will be my last column as President of the Oregon Chapter. Needless to say, from our initial organizing efforts in April of 1996 at Skamania Lodge, it has been an exciting and rewarding experience to work with so many wonderful, talented people. It is now time to turn the reins over to a new and very able slate of officers and board members now being recommended by a nominating committee.

Our membership now stands at about 170 and our treasurer reports we have a hearty bank balance of nearly $1,800. I believe a healthy chapter must be an active chapter enlisting its members in a wide variety of interesting, beneficial and fun projects. We conducted a survey in 1997 to determine the membership's priority of interests and found them to be: (1) learning more about all phases of the Expedition, (2) participating in activities and field trips and sharing personal knowledge and research and (3) participating in L & C Bicentennial planning activities and exploring opportunities for L&C education in our schools and communities.

To address these priorities we established at least a dozen projects to involve our membership. Some projects are in great shape while others need your help.

1. We have developed a superb newsletter and one of the nation's finest Lewis and Clark web sites.



2. The inventory of Oregon's principal Expedition sites is nearing completion, but needs additional information. When completed it will be on our web site as well as becoming a chapter in a regional (OR,WA, ID) tourist guide for the bicentennial.
3. Oregon Lewis and Clark scholar's lecture series has been on hold to prevent conflict with similar efforts by other organizations. This project will also produce a regional publication embracing scholarly lectures from WA and ID.
4. The Jean Baptiste Charbonneau gravesite near Jordan Valley has been beautifully restored and the site donated to the county by caring landowners.
5. The extent of Captain Clark's exploration up the Willamette River was professionally researched resulting in an excellent article published in We Proceeded On.


(continued on next page)


Inside This Issue:
  • Lewis and Clark Qamp;&A: Mike discusses Peace Medals & Tomahawk-Umbrellas
    See page 3
  • Fall Council Meeting Info: Join us in St. Paul, OR on Sunday, October 15, 2000
    See Pages 4 - 7
  • Upcoming Events: Living History at Fort Clatsop and The Columbia Conference
    See Pages 9 & 10
  • New In Print: Martin Plamondon fulfills one of William Clark's dreams
    See Page 11




  • President's Corner (con't)
    6. Chapter educational initiatives have included distribution of the Heritage Foundation's curriculum guide to selected schools; a partnership with the Oregon Dept. of Education to share information and be a L & C resource for teachers. In addition, our web site will be invaluable for teachers and students and I hope we can obtain funding to develop a statewide essay award contest. The chapter also participated in the "Corps of Education Partners" planning workshops which conduct educational activities for the National L&C Bicentennial Council.
    7. The membership has enjoyed a number of excellent speakers, field trips and social functions. The resumption of an annual Christmas Party at Fort Clatsop is scheduled for December 16, with the Clatsop County L&C group, the WA State Chapter and the Chinook Tribal Council as guests.
    8. Efforts are still underway to obtain official recognition of "Bird Point" in Ecola State Park as the true location of "Clark's Point of View".
    9. The chapter has worked closely with LCBO, the state-wide coordinating body for L&C Bicentennial activities, since its inception and recently contributed to the 2000 Bicentennial inventory for Federal funding of selected projects.
    10. The L&C Columbia River Water Trail Guide Book, a WA and OR chapter project, is slated for publication this fall.
    11. A chapter logo contest resulted in one fine submission, but we need a choice of logo designs. WA and ID chapters both have developed attractive logos. Send us your creative ideas.
    12. Arrangements are being made to design a chapter membership badge, but our logo should be a part of its design.

    I have refrained from naming the many individuals that have made the above record possible to avoid over-looking someone. You know who you are and we are deeply grateful

    for your generous and varied contributions. This is not a farewell message. I will remain an active member of our outstanding chapter whose future will be busy and bright as we have a long way to "proceed on."

    Thank you for the privilege of serving as your president.

    Keith Hay



    Chapter Participation

    People join the Oregon Chapter for different reasons; one is the desire to learn more about Lewis & Clark or the upcoming bicentennial commemoration, others just want to receive the newsletter or to attend an occasional meeting. This is fine, as all are welcome. However, it is also true that perpetuation of the chapter requires active participation by some. There are many ways to contribute, with your time, talent or monetary support. If you have any inkling of desire to help out, please make yourself known. Participation includes submission of an article for the chapter newsletter or website, submitting a logo design or chapter motto suggestion, helping with a chapter project (see our web site at www.lcarchive.org\or_lcthf.html for a list of these), providing membership forms to acquaintances or taking a few to your local library, chairing an existing project, organizing a new project, serving on a committee or as an officer or board member. The Oregon Chapter is what its members are - please help it to be the chapter you want it to be. The officers and directors welcome your suggestions and input.

    Great Falls Statue



    Welcome To Our New Members!
    With these additions we now boast a membership of 164 . . . and growing!

    Carol Ann Buss William E. German Leslie Labbe
      Jim and Nancy Sellers  

    Lewis & Clark : Question & Answer
    By Mike Carrick


    Question In the December 1998 issue of the Oregon Chapter newsletter you wrote about the Peace Medals given by the Captains. You wrote that the best guess was that 3 large, 13 mid-size, and 16 small Jefferson medals were given out as well as 55 Washington medals and some U.S. silver dollars. How many are known to be still in existence?



    Answer At the recent annual meeting of the Lewis and Clark Trail Heritage Foundation I had the pleasure of chatting with Mike Venso who is doing scholarly research on the Peace Medals. His research indicates that there are 2 large, 4 mid-size, and 5 small Jefferson Peace medals documented. There were 11 known Washington medals, but the two at Maryhill Museum have been reported missing. This is not to say that the known medals were actually on the expedition. No one knows how many there were to start with. Zebulon Pike might have also taken some on his forays into the mountains. We are looking forward to reading the results of Mike Venso's research.


    Question At the above-mentioned meeting, I had a display of my collection of weapons of the Lewis & Clark expedition. A member examining my tomahawks asked me if I knew of the combination tomahawk-umbrella that Clark carried. He said that it was mentioned in James Alexander Thom's book, FROM SEA TO SHINING SEA. Thom was in the room, so I asked him about it. He said there is documentation of such an instrument having been given to Clark by his older brother, George Rogers Clark. He also thought that there might be something in the Filson Library about it. So, was there such a Rube Goldberg gadget?

    Answer I am very skeptical. A tomahawk-umbrella combination does not make sense. The only mention that I know of in the Journals concerning an umbrella is when Clark loses his in the gully-washer flood that almost traps him. Upon careful reading, I think I understand the source of the suggestion that Clark had such an item. When Clark reports the experience, he writes, "I lost at the river in the torrent the large Compas, an eligant fusee, Tomahawk Humbrallo, Shot pouh, & horn with powder & Ball, mockersons, . . ."1 So, it does sound like he might have had a "Tomahawk Humbrallo."

    But, Lewis describes the incident a little more carefully, "Sarbono lost his gun shot pouch, horn, tomahawk, and my wiping rod; Capt. Clark his Umbrella and compas...."2 It appears that Charbonneau lost a tomahawk and Clark lost an umbrella.

    1Clark, June 29, 1805     2 Lewis, June 29, 1805



      Fall Council Meeting of the Oregon Chapter  
      Sunday, October 15, 2000  
      St. Paul / Champoeg  

    The Fall Council Meeting of the Oregon Chapter will take place on Sunday, October 15, 2000 in the St. Paul / Champoeg area. We will meet at the St. Paul Historical Museum to learn about St. Paul and Francois Rivet, a lesser known expedition member, now buried in St. Paul, who accompanied Lewis and Clark to the Mandan Villages and returned from there in the spring of 1805. This will be followed by lunch in Champoeg State Park. The business meeting, which includes election of officers for 2001, will follow lunch. After the meeting, members will have the opportunity to fire off a blackpowder weapon.

    The tentative schedule is:
    10:00 am Meet at the St. Paul Historical Museum. Driving instructions are shown below and a map is on page 5. Local historian George Brown will provide a lecture and tour of the museum and graveyard. Secretary Mike Carrick will provide further information on Francois Rivet.
    11:30 am Drive to Oak Grove #4 (covered picnic area) in Champoeg State Park. Driving instructions and a map are shown on page 6. Note: Unless you have a State Park Annual Pass, be sure to bring some $1.00 bills or an old style $5.00 bill to purchase a $3.00 day use permit from the machine at the park entrance.
    12:00 pm Lunch and business meeting. You can bring your own lunch or RSVP to partake in a catered lunch (details below). The business meeting will include election of officers and board members for the year 2001. A tentative meeting agenda is shown on page 6 and the proposed slate of officers is noted on page 7.
    2:00 pm Meet in the parking lot of the St. Paul Rodeo Grounds for a blackpowder demonstration and the opportunity to shoot (wads only) a Model 1803 Harpers Ferry replica (Thanks Mike, Roger & Glen). Driving instructions and a map are shown on page 6.
    Lunch Information
    The Butteville General Store will be providing a catered lunch of barbecued chicken, a choice of three salads, chips, fruit, brownies, sodas and coffee. The price is $8.00 per person and RSVPs are REQUIRED. Please RSVP to Glen Kirkpatrick, Program Chair via one of the following methods:
  • e-mail to: glenkirkpatrick1@juno.com
  • postal mail to: Glen Kirkpatrick, 15100 SE Gladstone Dr., Portland, OR  97236
  • phone at: (503) 761-3492
  • Driving instructions to St. Paul
    From I-5, take Hillsboro-Silverton Hwy (Hwy 219) westbound. After approximately four (4) miles, bear right onto Champoeg Salem Road (Hwy 219 - North). Approximately five (5) miles later, turn right onto Main St. (Hwy 219 - North) Go one block north on Main St. to Mission Avenue and turn right. The St. Paul Historical Museum is on the left as shown on the map on page 5.



    Map of St. Paul, Oregon
    St. Paul, OR
    St. Paul Historical Museum and Rodeo Grounds are marked above.




    Driving instructions from St. Paul to Champoeg State Park
    Beginning in Saint Paul, OR on Main Street (OR-219), go Northeast for about 3 1/2 miles. Turn right on Champoeg Rd NE and go East to the Park Entrance. Use the map below to navigate within the park.

    Map of Champoeg State Park
    Map of Champoeg State Park, OR
    The road to Oak Grove #4 picnic area is marked in bold.


    Driving instructions from Champoeg State Park to the St. Paul Rodeo Grounds
    Exit the park by making a right turn (west) onto Champoeg Rd NE. At the junction with OR-219, turn left (southeast) to St. Paul. The Rodeo Grounds are on the east side of Main Street (OR-219) between 3rd and 4th Streets and DeLorme and Malo. The Rodeo Grounds are marked on the map on page 5.

    Tentative Meeting Agenda
  • Vote on bylaw changes (see pages 7 & 8 for details)
  • Election of officers and board for 2001 (see proposed slate on page 7)
  • Information on Chapter Badges
  • Information on Christmas Party at Fort Clatsop
    A joint party for the Oregon Chapter, Washington Chapter, Clatsop County Lewis and Clark Bicentennial Association, and Clatsop/Chinook tribe is planned for Saturday, December 16, 2000!
  • Updates on Chapter Projects



    Proposed Slate of Officers and Additional Board Members
    The Nominating Committee (Dr. Robert Holcomb, Chairman; Dr. Albert Furtwangler & Dwight Garrison) propose the following slate of officers and additional board members for approval by vote of the general membership.
    President Jay Rasmussen
    Vice President Michael Carrick
    Secretary Glen Kirkpatrick
    Treasurer Dick Hohnbaum
    Board Member
    (additional per bylaw changes)
    Linda Nelson

    Proposed Bylaw Changes
    The chapter bylaws (posted at www.lcarchive.org\orbylaws.html) are a tool to serve and guide us in our procedures. As the chapter matures, they may require occasional adjustments, especially when they create problems or hamper efforts. The bylaws allow for changes and amendments by vote of the membership and the board has recommended the following changes:

    Article III, Section 1 currently reads:
    Officers of the Chapter shall be a President, Vice-President, Secretary and a Treasurer who shall be elected by the membership at the annual meeting. These elected officers shall take office on January 1 following the election. The term of office is one year. There shall be five directors elected in the same manner for three year terms, except that for the directors elected at the 1999 annual meeting, one director shall serve one year, and two directors shall serve two years as designated by the president. Directors shall take office immediately following the election. No officer or director may be elected for more than two consecutive terms. The officers and directors shall meet periodically to act on behalf of the chapter, to provide guidance and to propose matters for the chapter to discuss and bring to a vote. The Board of Directors shall consist of the four officers and five directors.

    The board proposes modifying this to read:
    Officers of the Chapter shall be a President, Vice-President, Secretary and a Treasurer who shall be elected by the membership at the annual meeting. The term of office is one year. There shall be six directors elected in the same manner for three-year terms, except that for the directors elected at the 1999 annual meeting, two directors shall serve one year, and two directors shall serve two years as designated by the president. Officers and directors shall take office on January 1 following the election. No officer or director may be elected for more than two consecutive terms. In addition, there are two Ex Officio directors who are not elected. The first Ex Officio position is reserved for the current supervisor of Fort Clatsop National Memorial. The second Ex Officio position is reserved for the chapter's immediate past president. The officers and directors shall meet periodically to act on behalf of the chapter, to provide guidance and to propose matters for the chapter to discuss and bring to a vote. The Board of Directors shall consist of the four officers, six directors and two Ex Officio directors.

    (Bylaw amendments continue, next page)



    Article III, Section 3 currently reads:
    Board of Directors meetings must have a quorum of six members. No quorum is required for membership meetings.

    The board proposes modifying this to read:
    Board of Directors meetings must have a quorum of seven members. No quorum is required for membership meetings.


      Sacagawea - After The Expedition  

    By Jay Rasmussen

    I receive many email inquiries via my Lewis and Clark Internet Archive web site (www.lcarchive.org). One popular question is; "what happened to Sacagawea after the Lewis and Clark expedition?"

    After the expedition, Toussaint, Sacagawea and Jean-Baptiste traveled to St. Louis arriving about December of 1809. A baptismal record was recently discovered which shows that Jean-Baptiste (Pomp) was baptized in St. Louis on December 28, 1809. The record of this is included in the "Register of Baptisms of the Old Cathedral Parish."1

    Toussaint and Sacagawea traveled back northward in 1811. Henry-Marie Brackenridge, a member of Manuel Lisa's expedition, mentioned them in his 1811 journal.

    "We had onboard a Freenchman named Charbonet with his wife, an Indian woman of the Snake nation, both of whom accompanied Lewis and Clark to the Pacific, and were of great service. The woman, a good creature, of a mild and gentle disposition, greatly attached to the whites, whose manners and dress she tries to imitate, but she had become sickly, and longed to revisit her native country; her husband also, who had spent many years amongst the Indians, was become weary of a civilized life."2

    Sacagawea's death on December 20, 1812 at Fort Manuel (near today's Kenel, SD) is noted in the journal of John Luttig. He states; "this Evening the Wife of Charbonneau a Snake Squaw,died of a putrid fever she was a good and the best Women in the fort, aged abt 25 years she left a fine infant girl." 3 Additionally, Sacagawea is noted as being dead in Clark's 1825-1828 "List of Men on Lewis and Clark's Trip."4

    William Clark officially became legal guardian for Pomp, and his young sister Lisette, around August of 1813. The adoption record reads:

    "The court appoints [John Luttig crossed out and William Clark inserted] William Clark Guardian to the Infant children of Toussant Charbonneau deceased, to wit Tousant Charbonneau a boy about the age of ten years and Lisette Charbonneau a girl about one year old. The said infant children not being possessed of any property within the knowledge of the court, the said Guardian is not required to give bond."5

    (continued on Page 12)



    Upcoming Events


    Living History Programs at the Fort Clatsop Replica, 8am to 5pm
    Saturday, September 23, 2000 - National Public Lands Day

    Knives, Arms and Ammunition of the Lewis and Clark Expedition
    Spend the day at Fort Clatsop National Memorial exploring the tools of survival of the Lewis and Clark Expedition! Living programs about the expedition are presented throughout the day!

    Costumed Park Rangers will be working with and demonstrating the variety of arms and ammunition the Expedition carried which helped them accomplish their goals. Special programs about the arms and ammunition of the expedition will take place at 10:00 am, 11:30 am and 3:30 pm.

    Special guests Erhard Gross and Dan Westlind will join the park staff to demonstrate how the expedition might have made knives on the trail. At 1:00 p.m. using materials and tools similar to those used by the Corps' blacksmiths, master bladesmith Dan Westlind and artist Erhard Gross will demonstrate the means and methods then in use to create a replica of this crucial explorer's implement. In addition, Michael Carrick, collector of historic weapons, will be exhibiting his collection of Lewis and Clark Expedition period weapons from 10:00 am to 4:00 pm.

    National Public Lands Day - Free Admission to all activities. Park Hours are 8:00 am to 5:00 pm

    Michael Carrick

    Michael Carrick and his collection of L&C period weapons




    The Columbia Conference (Part 1)
    October 25 - 27, 2000
    The Shilo Inn, The Dalles, OR

    Part one of a two part cooperative workshop in preparation for The Lewis and Clark Bicentennial Commemoration

    The Columbia Conference was conceived to leverage the potential of cooperation between the states of Washington and Oregon in assisting communities located along The Columbia River in participation and preparation for the Lewis and Clark Bicentennial Commemoration. The conference was designed to be conducted in two progressive sessions. The first session is in Oregon, Fall 2000, and the second session is proposed to be held in the Tri-Cities area in Washington in the Spring of 2001.

    Part 1
    Date: October 25-27, 2000
    Location: The Shilo Inn, The Dalles, OR 97058

    A three-day conference held in the Mid-Columbia region, focusing on rural and urban development and the role of The Lewis and Clark Bicentennial in leveraging both. Workshops address infrastructure, grant writing/fundraising, education, event planning, marketing and public relations as well as reports of "what to expect" on both a state and national level.

    The elements of the conference include workshops, a trade show, an opening dinner reception, historic tours, a reception at The Columbia Gorge Discovery Center, a performance of Northwest Passage and The China Clipper Band at the historic Granada Theatre, and features guests speakers such as Jane Kirkpatrick, Pacific Northwest author, as well as Dr. Ernesto Sirolli, urban planner and author of Ripples From The Zambezi.

    The conference is being hosted by Washington State Department of Tourism, Tri-Cities Visitors and Convention Bureau, and The Dalles Area Chamber of Commerce. Sponsors include: Washington Department of Tourism, Oregon Department of Tourism, Northern Wasco County Peoples Utility District and Shilo Inns.

    Project Participants to date include: The Dalles Area Chamber of Commerce, City of The Dalles, Wasco County, The Confederated Tribes of The Warm Springs, The Confederated Tribes of The Umatilla, The Confederated Tribes of The Yakama, and The Nez Perce, Oregon Department of Tourism, Washington Department of Tourism, Washington State Parks, Oregon State Parks, The Columbia Gorge Discovery Center, Maryhill Museum of Art, Sherman County Historical Museum, Fort Dalles Museum, The National Lewis and Clark Bicentennial Council, Washington State Lewis and Clark Bicentennial Statutory Committee, Rural Development Initiatives, Inc., LCBO, The Columbia Gorge Community College, and Northern Wasco County Peoples Utility District.

    For more information contact:
    The Dalles Area Chamber of Commerce
    (800) 255-3385
    email:
    website:
    www.thedalleschamber.com





      New In Print  

    Plamondon, Volume 1 Lewis and Clark Trail Maps
    A Cartographic Reconstruction, Volume I
    Missouri River between Camp River Dubois (Illinois) and Fort Mandan (North Dakota)-Outbound 1804; Return 1806.
    Martin Plamondon II

    Illustrations, maps, indexes
    9" X 12", 208 pages
    Hardbound, ISBN 0-87422-232-X, $65
    Paperback, ISBN 0-87422-233-8, $45
    (Available September 2000)

    The approaching Lewis and Clark Expedition bicentennial is producing an unprecedented flurry of interest in the United States, and an array of commemorative activities are being planned in the regions visited by the Corps of Discovery.

    During the 28-month trek (1804-06), Captain William Clark dutifully surveyed the expedition's route by taking continual compass readings to determine directions while estimating distances between geographic points. Clark assumed that cartographers would convert his painstakingly recorded "surveyed traverse" into well-crafted, accurate maps soon after the journey's completion. For a variety of reasons, this did not occur. Until now, that is! By utilizing the measurements, notes, maps, and sketches in Clark's records as well as other sources, Martin Plamondon II has accomplished the cartographic reconstruction that Clark expected upon the expedition's return. Volume I is the first of an anticipated three-volume set delineating the Corps' journey.

    The first volume includes 153 full-page maps of the Missouri River from Illinois to North Dakota. In addition to presenting key geographic and historic features, the maps compare the modern beds of rivers to their courses at the time of the exploration. The contrast is striking between what Lewis and Clark saw and what we see today. The ever-meandering Missouri River, in particular, has changed its channel hundreds of times since the men of the expedition fought its currents. Even Clark commented on the return trip in 1806 that some sections of the river were barely recognizable compared to when they passed by two years earlier. The impact of modern America has likewise wrought great change.

    Of further interest in Volume I are the many excerpts from the expedition diaries, an insightful essay on frontier surveying, and cartographic indexes. Plamondon's years of careful cartographic reconstruction have resulted in a captivating and never-before-seen record of the American West.

    Martin Plamondon II of Vancouver, Washington, is a former chairman of the Governor's Washington Lewis and Clark Trail Committee. He has 28 years of experience as a professional cartographer, 16 of which were spent as director of mapping for Clark County, Washington.

    Review extracted from the WSU Press website:
    http://www.wsu.edu/wsupress/BooksInPrint/northwest/lewisandclark.html



    (Sacagawea - After the Expedition - continued from page 8)

    Note that the child referred to as "Tousant" is actually Jean-Baptiste and why it says "Toussant" (Charbonneau senior) was deceased is not fully known. However, it seems that Charbonneau Sr. had gone off on a trapping expedition that set out from Fort Manuel (where Luttig was stationed) and had failed to return when expected.

    Perhaps Luttig assumed Charbonneau had met his death in the wilderness. Toussaint Charbonneau lived until at least 1839. He is mentioned from time to time in various journals and letters, but with never a mention of Sacagawea. He provided interpreter services for Prince Maximilian of Wied, Germany, for a period in 1833 to 1834. In 1839, the year after Clark's death and at about 80 years of age, Toussaint visited St. Louis to collect money owed to him. After that he vanishes from recorded history. His son, Jean-Baptiste, settled Toussaint's estate in 1843. Jean-Baptiste led a very interesting life himself and is buried here in Oregon.

    The confusion about Sacagawea's death date can be traced to 1907 and Dr. Grace Raymond Hebard, who was a librarian at the University of Wyoming. 6 She claims that a person, alleged to be Sacagawea, lived to age 100 and was buried on the Wind River Indian Reservation in Wyoming. Dr. Hebard published her theory in 1932 in a book entitled, "Sacagawea: A Guide and Interpreter of the Lewis and Clark Expedition".

    The known written documents mentioning this other person are; the listing of her name on a November 1, 1877 census roll of the Wind River Shoshone and Bannock Indians, and the woman's April 9, 1884 death certificate. Both of these official documents record her name as "Bazil's Mother." Note that at age 100 in 1884, "Bazil's Mother" would have been born in 1784, making her 21 years old in 1805. Sacagawea was about 16 in 1805.

    In the journals of Lewis and Clark, it is mentioned that Toussaint had, in 1805, two Shoshone wives, Sacagawea being one. There is some conjecture that "Bazil's Mother" may have been this other wife, popularly know as "Otter Woman" - but there is no known written record to support any of these claims.

    Dr. Hebard's conjectures have been reprinted and rehashed a number of times in the popular press, thus leading to confusion over the matter. But, taken together, I believe the historical record is pretty clear cut, and supports the 1812 death date.



    1Moore, Bob, "Pompey's Baptism"; We Proceeded On; February 2000, Volume 26, No. 1.

    2Brackenridge, Henry Marie, "The Journal of a Voyage Up the Missouri River, In 1811" and "Views Of Louisiana"; 1814 (pg 202)

    3Luttig, John, "Journal of a Fur-Trading Expedition on the Upper Missouri, 1812-1813"; Argosy-Antiquarian Ltd., New York, NY, 1964 (pg 106)

    4Jackson, Donald, ed., "Letters of the Lewis and Clark Expedition" (2nd edition); University of Illinois Press, Urbana, IL, 1978 (pp 638-639)

    5Colter-Frick, L.R., "Courageous Colter and Companions"; Video Proof, Washington, MO; 1997 (pp 373-374)

    6Anderson, Irving, Sacagawea Biography
    http://www.pbs.org/lewisandclark/inside/saca.html




    Correction: On page 11 of the June 2000 (Vol. II No. III) Chapter Newsletter, the southern-most caption on the 1888 nautical chart reads "Turnaround area is just south of the St. John's Bridge." The word "south" should read "north."



    For information on joining the National Lewis & Clark Trail Heritage Foundation click here.

    For information on joining the Oregon State Chapter click here.



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    Posted: October 9, 2000

    Send Questions, Comments and Corrections to Jay Rasmussen